Animatic trailer

Below is the link to our animatic trailer


Representation theory and how we’ll implement it into our construction

Screen Shot 2018-05-08 at 15.23.28.png

The definition of representation is the process by which media texts re-present reality (people, place and ideas) through the processes of selection and ordering within generic, technological and institutional conventions. Now, it is very important that we understand representation so that we can create characters that will have create the desired emotions out of the audience whilst not offending anyone at the same time.


Chandler- General

. Chandler claimed that all texts, however ‘realistic’ they may seem to be are constructed representations rather than simply transparent ‘reflections’, recordings, transcriptions or reproductions of a pre-existing reality. Representations which become familiar through constant re-use come to feel ‘natural’ and unmediated. However, representation is unavoidably selective, foregrounding some things and backgrounding others and every representation is motivated by stereotypes and things from past history.


. “This operates, not because the dominant classes can prescribe and proscribe, in detail, the mental content of the lives of subordinate classes (they too ‘live’ in their own ideologies), but because they strive and to a degree succeed in framing all competing definitions of reality within their range, bringing all the alternatives within their horizon of thought. They set the limits- mental and structural- within which subordinate classes ‘live’ and make sense of their subordination in such a way as to sustain the dominance of those ruling over them”. What this means is that the people who control the media use their power over the audience to feed them media that creates the representations that they desire in the minds of the audiences, a sort of mental repression.



. Pluralism stresses the group rather than the individual and argues that the media in capitalist society is authentically democratic since 1) the media’s popularity derive from interaction among society’s constituent groups, to which all the audience belong; 2) the media are internally democratic, they accurately reflect their audience’s interests and views; 3) the balance among these forces, reflected in the media output, essentially represents a fair and true equilibrium among all the audience groups, with no great consistent bias in any direction” In other words there are multiple representations of all things, both negative and positives, as they want to try and keep all groups of audiences happy and have to create representations of the same thing that they all like and eventually those all create stereotypes that when mixed together create an accurate representation. If the media do rely on stereotypes it is only because it acts as a reflection of society rather than a representation


Male Gaze- Mulvey

. Laura Mulvey proposed the ‘Male Gaze’ theory in her article, ‘Visual pleasure and Narrative Cinema’. This particular theory was influenced by the psychoanalytic concept that film can access a person’s subconscious and unconscious fears, anxieties and desires. Film is largely based on the pleasure of looking. Mulvey also argues that male viewers experience voyeurism by viewing the opposite sex and narcissism by identifying with male protagonists. Ultimately cinema is seen as one means for upholding patriarchy by positioning men in positions of power leaving women feeling lacking.

Out of all of these theories, the one we will most likely implement into our construction is the Male gaze theory proposed by Mulvey, as it links very well with the genre of film we have to make a trailer for, Noir, with some of the archetypal conventions being the illusion of overly sexualised women as femme fatales and men in power as both villains and heroes.

Narrative theory and how we’ll implement it into our construction


Narrative is made up of story and plot, which includes all contextual events and order in which they appear. It is vital that we understand the factors that make up good narrative as we want our piece to be as professional and of as high a level as possible.

Three act Structure:

. Very simple, the story is made up out of three acts: Act 1- Set up, first 30minutes of film. Act 2- starts with 1st plot point, 1 hour of film, finishes with 2nd plot point, build-up and Act 3- resolution, last 30 minutes of film


Male Gaze

. Mulvey argues that as cinema is dominated by men, audiences are shown a heterosexual male view of society. She argues that women are sexualised to attract men and that they are used to create voyeurism, the sexual pleasure derived from looking. She also argues that narcissism plays a big part in narrative, arguing that men are so in love with themselves that they love seeing other men being successful and powerful.


Narrative Structure

. Todorov 5 stage theory relating to the establishment of an equilibrium, the fall of said equilibrium, resolution of problem, establishment of new equilibrium, new equilibrium becomes the norm.


Propp Character Types

Propp theorised that there are 8 archetypal character types to any film or old fairy tale:Hero- protagonist, goes to save the princess, villain- opponent of hero, dispatcher- sets hero off on journey, princess- reward for the hero, donor- gives the hero a vital item, father- gives the hero the reward, false hero- who tempts the hero away from their quest and the helper- who helps the hero. Propp argues that without at least a majority of these character types present it is very difficult to have an effective and professional narrative to your text.

 Binary Opposites

. Levi-Strauss hypothesised that opposites structure the text, specifically binary opposites such as: Black and White, Night and Day, Good and Bad, Hot and Cold, Good and Evil


Action and Enigma Codes

. Barthes said that certain actions in films cause a reaction. These are called Action codes. On the other hand are enigma codes, that are related to the story and are often triggered by the action codes. He also theorised that mysteries can drive the story onwards as well.

To conclude, we will ensure that we have a number of the conventions from each of the theories as they all include key components of a good narrative, without which it would be hard to create an exciting or appealing narrative, making it hard to make a trailer for which is one of our tasks.


Audience theories and how we will implement them into our constructions

theatre-audience_3133209k.jpgAn audience can be described as, from a business standpoint, a demographic who only hold monetary importance. Given the importance of audiences it is no surprise that there are countless theories that discuss how audiences consume media texts. The primary debate amongst audience theorist is on whether audiences are passive or active.  I realised that it is vital to understand audience theory as we’re making a teaser trailer and film poster as part of our coursework, and so in order to be as professional as possible and to produce an effective trailer and poster we have to understand how audience consume and interpret media texts.


Effects theory- Packard:

The Hypodermic Needle Theory, also known as the Magic Bullet Theory, was the first major theory concerning the effect of the mass media on society. The theory connotes that the mass media could influence a very large group of people directly and uniformly by ‘shooting’ or ‘injecting’them with appropriate messages designed to trigger a desired response and that audiences just accept what is presented to them and are passive in their consumption of said messages. Packard developed this approach in 1958 to explain how advertising uses psychological tricks to get the audience to buy products or services


Two Step Flow- Lazarsfeld:


The Hypodermic model proved too clumsy for media researchers seeking to more precisely explain the relationship between audience and text as the mass media became an essential part of life in societies around the world and did not reduce populations to a mass of unthinking drones, a more sophisticated explanation was required. Lazarsfeld  analysed the voters’ decision-making processes during a 1940 presidential election campaign and published his results in a paper called The People’s Choice. His findings suggested that the information does not flow directly from the text into the minds of its audience unmediated but is filtered through “opinion leaders” who then communicate it to their less active associates, over whom they have influence. The audience then mediate the information received directly from the media with the ideas and thoughts expressed by the opinion leaders (e.g. on Twitter) thus being influenced not by a direct process, but by a two step flow.


Uses and Gratifications theory- Blumler and Katz:

It became increasingly apparent to some media theorists that audiences made choices about what they did when consuming texts and that they were far from being a passive mass, audiences were made up of individuals who actively consumed texts for different reasons and in different ways. Researchers Blumler and Katz expanded this theory and published their own in 1974, stating that individuals might choose and use a text for the following purposes: Diversion, personal identity, personal relationships and surveillance. The idea behind audiences consuming texts as a ‘diversion’ from life is very simple. Most people work shifts from 8 in the morning to 5 at night most days, falling into a dull daily routine. Ergo, they desire to get lost in the fantastical world of cinema in search for relief.  Personal identity relates to the idea of audiences consuming texts in order to develop their personalities and relationships with others. I.e. a group of friends watching a film together. Personal relationships link quite closely with diversion, given that it discusses the concept of audiences consuming texts they can relate to, and the further an audience can relate to a text the further they will fall into that virtual world and the further their attention will divert from reality. And finally, surveillance is the concept that audiences consume texts that they believe to provide them with information.